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Facts about the urinary system


What is the urinary system ?

One of the mechanisms that the human body has to get rid of body wastes is the urinary system . There, urine is produced and stored, and then removed in a complex process involving the kidneys, urethra and bladder. Each of these elements has a specific function that I will be talking about in these important facts about the urinary system that you need to know .

The parts of the urinary system

The urinary tract consists of the kidneys , ureters , bladder , urethra and urinary meatus . It is formed and begins to function before birth. When the bladder contains 250 mL of urine, the urge to urinate is felt .

The kidneys

Vital organs – bean-shaped – exist in pairs, implanted on each side of the spine , the main function of the kidneys is to purify the blood and ensure the proper expulsion of urine and waste and toxins that result . Natural filters of the human body, they measure the amount of water needed and maintain the proper functioning of it. Each kidney weighs 150 grams and one can continue to live with one kidney provided the remaining one is viable.

parts of the urinary systemThe ureters

They are the two small muscle tubes that extend the kidneys and collect urine from the pelvis and transport it to the bladder . Channels quite narrow, they measure between 20 and 30 centimeters. Equipped with an anti-reflux device, they ensure that the urine does not go up in the kidneys.

The bladder

Placed in front of the rectum in men and in front of the vagina and uterus in women, the bladder has three orifices. The first two come from the small canals of the ureters , the last one joins the urethra . It looks like a pear when it is distended by the arrival of urine. It fulfills a function of receptacle of the urine between two voices (urinating). It can contain between 200 ml and 500 ml of liquid . On the  bladder dome(in the upper part), there is a powerful muscle called detrusor whose function is to evacuate urine, it acts as flush when it contracts when urinating. In the lower part is the  bladder neck which gives on the urethra and which retains the urine thanks to the sphincter.

The urethra

It consists of a fine duct that expels urine. At the end of the urethra is the urinary meatus (external final opening) located at the level of the penis in the man and the vulva in the woman. The female urethra is about three centimeters in contrast to twelve centimeters in humans. The urethra has two sphincters, one of which contracts to retain urine. The role of the latter is fundamental for the balance between two voices. Dysfunction causes an uncontrollable flow of urine to suffer from incontinence.


It is the result of waste of the body made by the kidneys. These include the glomerulus which is a filter allowing water, electrolytes and other molecules to pass through but retaining red blood cells . This transformation results in urine.

The sphincters

These are the two muscles that retain the urine. In the form of a ring, the sphincter encircles the urethra. The urethral sphincter is composed of a double structure: the internal and external sphincter. The first is contracted permanently but relaxes in case of urination while the second is consciously compressed and avoids urinary leakage outside normal urination.

Pelvic floor

It consists of several layers of muscles, when they are solid , they retain the urine and prevent the bladder from descending.

How much fluid does the urinary system eliminate each day?

The urinary system  eliminates 800 to 2000 milliliters every day, for an income of two liters of water. Some medications, such as those used to treat hypertension , may increase the amount of urine that is produced and eliminated daily.

What is the most important organ of the urinary system?

The most important organ of the urinary system is the kidneys , bean-shaped structures that are located under the ribs in the middle of the back. Its function is to remove the urea from the blood and channel the urine into the bladder.

Differences between the male and female urinary system

The only difference between the male and female urinary system is the length of the urethra . In women, it measures approximately 4-5 cm and its outlet is located between the clitoris and the vagina . In man, it extends along the penis and measures about 20 cm. It serves to remove urine, but also to expel semen from ejaculation .

What is the composition of the urine?

The urine  is a product derived from blood. It is formed of water in 95%. The rest is 2.5% urea and 2.5% salts, minerals and other enzymes. Urine is not toxic.

What happens if a kidney deteriorates?

If one kidney deteriorates, it can be removed, since the other has the capacity to grow by 50% in a period of two months and begin to perform the functions of filtration of its former partner.

What can be done to maintain a healthy bladder?

healthy bladder can be maintained  only by performing the following steps: drink large amounts of liquid daily (minimum of two liters), maintain a healthy diet with greater weight in vegetables, fruits and whole grains, and practice pelvic exercises on the floor With some frequency.

As you can see, the urinary system is a complex and very interesting mechanism. As long as you follow healthy living habits, your body will not have problems when it comes to eliminating waste from the blood.

Is the urinary system part of the excretory system

The excretory system are the organisms of the body that get rid of body waste such as urine , sweat and carbon dioxide. Since the urinary system has the kidney which gets rid of  urine we can say the urinary system is part of excretory system.

Interacting with the urinary system other systems.

The urinary system work along with two other systems the circulatory and the endocrine system . In order to remove urea, uric acid, and water from the blood the circulatory system sends the blood through the kidney . The endocrine system is like the faucet for the urinary system if we are dehydrated the endocrine system releases hormones to instruct the kidney to produce less urine and vic versa when we drink too much liquids.

Diseases of the Human Urinary System

As we have seen, the urinary system is responsible for filtering toxic substances from the blood and evacuating them out of the body thanks to urine.

If any of its organs did not work properly it can lead to diseases that would seriously affect our body , since it would not be detoxified as it should lead to infections and other severe conditions suchas those described below.

Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria from outside the human bodythat ascend to the bladder or kidneys through the urethra.


The cystitis can be considered the most common urinary tract infections, also known as Syndrome Painful Bladder.

It is a chronic bladder disorder, in which its walls are irritated and inflamed by hardening it and causing it to reduce its capacity , being able to reach even small bleeding or ulcers in the bladder walls.

All caused in most cases by the bacterium Escherichia Coli , which resides in the rectum and can access the urinary tractthrough the urethra, so especially women are recommended to clean from front to back after doing their needs.


The pyelonephritis is another urinary tract infection that occurs when bacteria or microorganisms of fecal flora reach the kidneys , so is called infection of the upper urinary tract.

It is the second most frequent urinary disease.

Kidney stones or kidney stones

The kidney stones or stones are formed in the kidneys but can be found throughout the urinary tract, its size varies and it depends on the level of pain for patients with this disease is more common in men than in women.

Kidney stones are formed when there are high levels of calcium and oxalate in the urine , which when mixed with other substances become crystals of different sizes and are installed in different parts of the urinary tract .

Renal insufficiency

When the kidneys are not able to filter all the blood and do it correctly, kidney failure occurs .

Their effort is insufficient to regulate water, protein and chemicals , this can happen due to an accident that damages them, the intake of narcotic substances or alcohol, or the loss of a lot of blood, which can lead to deprivation Total kidney function.


The nephritis is a severe inflammation of the kidney , which can result in nausea and vomiting, blood in the urine and foamy urine.

It is a disease of the urinary tract that is derived from the side effects of some drugs, the presence of microorganisms and immune insufficiency.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

The Hyperplasia Benign Prostatic is the enlargement of the prostate gland, occurs mainly in men aged 60 years , because with aging prostate grows larger to tighten both the urethra that obstructs and prevents output the urine.

The reasons why this occurs are unknown, but they are related to aging and the male cellular and hormonal changes that this entails.

Symptoms may be increased urination and difficulty urinating the entire amount that is stored in the bladder.


The Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland but this time by bacterial infection (may be caused by an STD) and has the same symptoms as BPH, but may also include dysuria or painful urination.


The proteinuria is the abnormal amount of protein in the urine , although this does not cause any disease itself, can be a sign that the kidneys are developing this disease.

The symptoms are foamy urine and swelling of the extremities of the body , abdomen and face.

Urinary Incontinence

It is called urinary incontinence to the inability of bladder control or involuntary leakage of the bladder , given by weakness or overactivity of the bladder muscles which results in the inability to maintain the closed bladder or urge to urinate respectively.

This disease can be cured by exercising or by surgery .

Urinary retention

The urinary retention is only difficulty in emptying the bladder , common problem causing discomfort given by the failure bladder nerves, stress or urinary tract obstructions.


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