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Types of biology


As any science that boasts, biology diversifies its efforts in different disciplines to cover the greatest possible knowledge. This is something necessary, because every time there is more information and knowing everything in detail about the science of life is something that can be considered impossible, or for which we would need all the time in the world.

The different branches of biology allow to delimit and concentrate knowledge to be able to investigate and continue advancing in the discovery of new information that reveals the mysteries that are hidden in living beings.

The types of Biology

Biology is divided into a multitude of disciplines, and as knowledge advances, they appear new. In addition, some narrow with other great sciences that serve to support, as with chemistry or geology. Even so, one can speak of 10 main branches that have served as the basis for the massive diversification of the science of life. Let’s start

10 Main types of biology

1. Cell biology

The cell is the primordial unit of living beings , since all are formed by them. Therefore it is not strange that one of the branches of biology focuses on the study of it. Formerly known as cytology, this discipline, as its name indicates, specializes in the knowledge of the structures and functions carried out by cells. Read more about the types of cells in human body .


2. Developmental biology

One of the most impressive phenomena of life is how the union of two gametes can generate an entire multicellular organism. I am talking about fertilization through a sperm and an egg (in the case of animals) to form a zygote. This branch of biology specializes in the study of all cellular processes that are carried out in the development of a new organism through sexual reproduction.

3. Marine biology

The Earth is also known as the blue planet, and is that almost 71% of the extension of this is occupied by water. Life on the seas is no small thing , proof of this is the fact that there is a whole branch of biology that focuses on the study of it, from the beings that inhabit it to its interaction with the environment.

4. Molecular biology

If I spoke before about cell biology that specializes in the study of the structures and functions of cells, molecular biology focuses on the tools that cells use to carry out such functions. This discipline studies the proteins and the processes that they carry out from them, such as the synthesis of these components or the processes related to metabolism.

5. Botany

The alive beings are the main object of study of the biology, but there is very many variety of these, reason why it is necessary to diversify. Botany specializes mainly in the study of plants , such as plants, shrubs and trees, but also of life forms that are not vegetables and yet share characteristics with them, such as algae, fungi and cyanobacteria. All of them have in common a reduced mobility and that they can carry out photosynthesis (except fungi).

6. Ecology

The environment is a very important element for life and an increasingly current issue. Ecology is the branch of biology that studies the intimate interactions that are established between living beings and their environment or habitat , forming what are known as ecosystems.

7. Physiology

If cell biology focuses on the functions of cells, physiology is the discipline that specializes in the study of the processes that occur in organs, that is, functions that are performed from a set of cells. For example, the circulation of internal fluids or breathing mechanisms . There is as much physiology for animals as for vegetables.

8. Genetics

The cell is the unit of life, but without DNA it would be nothing. The genetic material contains all the information necessary to develop an organism. Therefore, there is a whole discipline that focuses on the study of genetic content, which is none other than genetics. The study of the genome has always been of special interest for biology.

9. Microbiology

If botany covers plants mainly, microbiology focuses on the study of microorganisms , unicellular living things of very small size, only visible through a microscope. Among the beings investigated are bacteria, archaea (formerly called archaebacteria), protozoa (unicellular eukaryotic organisms) or enigmatic viruses, although it is still debated whether the latter are living beings.

10. Zoology

The last branch of biology that specializes in the study of living beings is zoology, which covers the last of the kingdoms, which is none other than that of animals . From sponges to mammals, a wide range of living beings are under their field of study.


Other types of biology

To cover as much knowledge as possible, biology has been creating new fields of expertise. As there is more and more information in detail, it is necessary to delimit and concentrate knowledge.

This is the reason why we find so many branches of biology. They allow us to continue researching and advancing in the discovery of new data that encloses the biological world and the juxtaposition with other fields of knowledge such as chemistry, physics or psychology.


is a science that studies the structure of living beings,  ie, shape, topography, location, layout and the relationship between other organs that compose them.


Anthropology is a social science that is dedicated to the study of all aspects of human nature . It is a term of Greek origin composed of the words anthropos , which means ‘man’ or ‘human’, and logos , which means ‘knowledge’ or ‘science’. Anthropology studies human phenomena, so it takes into account both original and ancient societies and present ones. This science takes into account the evolution of the human species, ethnic diversity, cultural diversity, social customs, beliefs, transformation processes, etc.

Physical or biological anthropology : studies the genetic and biological aspects of man taking into account the evolutionary perspective and adaptation of the species to the environment. Within this discipline you can distinguish specialties such as genetic anthropology, forensic anthropology, paleoanthropology, among others.

13. Bacteriology

This is the science that studies bacteria, the etymological origin of the term is Latin in which “Bacterios” means “Small Animals” and “Logos” “Study”. Bacteriology is a very extensive science, its study is almost infinite due to the millions of types of bacteria that have not yet been discovered or that have not been manifested in multicellular organisms. However, bacteriology, as part of the microbiology studies that are carried out in medical and scientific institutes , is focused on issues of social importance that we will describe below. Bacteriology is responsible for classifying these microorganisms in various ways, in the field of medicine, they are divided into those that are dangerous for living beings and those that do not, a study is carried out in which the dangers are established, and cures before a possible infection. The pharmaceutical also plays a fundamental role in the study of bacteria, can be classified for optimization in the manufacture of medicines that fight viruses and diseases.

14. Astrobiology

The term astrobiology derives from Greek roots, this refers to the study on the possible existence of life on other planets “, this is composed lexically of” star “which means” star “plus” bios “which means” life “and the suffix” Lodge “which is equivalent to” study “,” treaty “or” word “. Astrobiology is that science responsible for the complete study and analysis of life throughout the universe ; that is, it deals with the origin, how it is distributed and the future of life in the universe (extraterrestrial life and life on Earth). This discipline is based on the implementation of other disciplines such as biology, astrophysics and geology to resort to the investigation of the origins, in addition to the influence and presence of life on the planets.

15. Biogeography

It is known as biogeography to the branch of biology focused on the study of the distribution of living beings in a geographical space . It can also be considered a specialization of geography that focuses on the places occupied by living organisms on Earth . Biogeography combines concepts, tools and techniques of zoology , botany and ecology , among other areas of knowledge. Its object of study is the distribution of the species on the planet, dedicated to analyzing the origin of the same and the changes that are recorded in it.

16. Bioengineering

Bioengineering is one of the newest disciplines on these lists, and is also known as biological engineering or biomedical engineering. Applies engineering principles to create new therapies or medical technologies.

17. Biophysics

Biophysics is usually considered a specialty of physics that generates knowledge of interest for biology . Anyway, it can also be noted that biophysics is a branch of biology that provides evidence to physics.

Another way to define biophysics is as the discipline that consists of the application of the methods and theories of physics in the field of biology . Thus it is possible to increase the knowledge of biological systems.

18. Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics investigates the applicability of computational technology in relation to the data available in biology.

19. Cytopathology

Cytopathology focuses on the study of diseases that corresponds to the cellular level.

20. Cytochemistry

Cytochemistry studies the chemical composition and molecular processes that take place in the cell.

21. Chronobiology

Chronobiology is a discipline that studies the biological rhythms of living beings, that is, what is their relationship with the passage of time.


Embryology is the science that studies the formation of complex organs and systems of an animal, from a single undifferentiated cell. It is part of developmental biology. Considering human development, this development begins by fertilization, generating the zygote or egg, which will go through three successive phases: morula, blastula and gastrula. It is studied by health and biological sciences.

23. Entomology

Entomology is the branch of zoology that studies the arthropods, that is, invertebrate animals such as insects, arachnids or crustaceans.

24. Epidemiology

Epidemiology investigates the way in which diseases are expressed and spread.

25. Epistemological biology

Epistemological biology is a discipline that belongs to the type of biology and is dedicated to researching the certification and the evolution of the different scientific processes used to promote awareness. This subject tries to analyze the historical, psychological and social facts that lead to the acquisition of knowledge.

26. Ethology

Etiology is a discipline somewhere between biology and psychology. It investigates the behavior of living beings, which in many cases serves to explain human behavior.

27. Evolutionary biology

Biological evolution is the branch or discipline of biology that is responsible for studying the origin of species and their changes, dissemination, differentiation and any evolutionary process occurring in the time, in a nutshell, studied since the beginning of the species comprising all the transformations suffered by this species over time, since it is responsible for the identification of each species with its ability to reproduce and compare the changes observed between each generation of the species studied.

28. Environmental biology

Environmental biology is a field that focuses on the relationships between human beings, other living beings and environment.

29. Fiction

Ficology, also called algology, is a botanical subdiscipline whose purpose is to study algae.

30. Phylogeny

Phylogeny focuses on the kinship relationship of different species, being therefore a discipline that includes evolutionary biology and taxonomy.

31. Phytopathology

Phytopathology is a discipline focused on plant diseases.

32. Herpetology

Herpetology is the branch of zoology that focuses on studying reptiles.

33. Histology

Histology specifically studies everything related to organic tissues, which form different living beings.

34. Ictiology

Ichthyology is the branch of zoology responsible for the study of bone fish.

35. Immunology

Immunology is the discipline responsible for the study of immunity.

36. Limnology

The study of limnology focuses on continental aquatic ecosystems.

37. Mastozoology

This branch of zoology focuses on the study of mammals.

38. Mycology

Mycology is the scientific discipline responsible for the fungal kingdom.

39. Morphology

Morphology aims to study the form of living beings.

40. Organography

The organography describes the organs belonging to organisms of the animal kingdom and also of the vegetable.

41. Ontogeny

Ontogeny is the science that investigates how living beings originate.

42. Ornithology

Ornithology is the part of the zoology responsible for the study of birds.

43. Paleontology

Paleontology is focused on the study of organisms that are fossilized.

44. Parasitology

Parasitology is a discipline dedicated specifically to parasites and to understand everything that relates to them.

45. Pathology

Pathology is a transversal discipline that aims to study everything that has to do with diseases and dysfunctions.

46. Primatology

Primatology is the discipline that deals with the study of primates, our closest relatives in the animal world.

47. ​​Sinecology

Synecology is a field that is responsible for understanding how different communities relate to the ecosystem.

48. Sociobiology

Sociobiology has its focus of interest in the social relationships that are established in the animal world.

49. Taxonomy

Taxonomy is a discipline specifically responsible for the classification of species.

50. Toxicology

Toxicology studies the relationship between living beings and different substances that are toxic to them.

51. Virology

Virology is a discipline dedicated exclusively to the study of viruses.

Bibliographic references:

Mayr, E. (1998). This is Biology: The Science of the Living World. Cambridge, MA (USA): The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press .

Audesirk, T. and Audesirk, G. (2008). Biology, Life on Earth. (8th ed.). Mexico: Prentice-Hall

Cellular and molecular biology. Mexico: McGraw-Hill Interamericana. Starr, C. and Taggart, R. (2004).

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